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Overfishing is the greatest threat to our oceans today. The world's marine life is quickly being depleted. An estimated 90% of all large, predatory fish are already gone from the world's oceans. A recent scientific study predicted a world-wide fisheries collapse by 2048. The only solution is to turn back from the brink, and to begin consuming seafood in a sustainable manner.
Sustainable seafood can be defined as species that are caught or farmed in a way that ensures the long-term health and stability of that species, as well as the greater marine ecosystem.
Ocean Wise’s Recommendations
Ocean Wise’s recommendations are based on 4 criteria. An Ocean Wise recommended species is:
1. Abundant and resilient to fishing pressures.
2. Well managed with a comprehensive management plan based on current research.
3. Harvested in a method that ensures limited bycatch on non-target and endangered species.
4. Harvested in ways that limit damage to marine or aquatic habitats and negative interactions with other species.
Ocean Wise’s classification system is based on two categories: sustainable or unsustainable, simply a good or bad choice for our oceans. Species are regularly updated and/or reclassified with the latest scientific information. Classifications, including changes to and Ocean Wise recommendations are provided regularly to Ocean Wise participants.
Issues that trouble our marine environment in order to feed an ever-growing population include overfishing, bycatch and habitat damage.
Overfishing Global consumption of seafood has doubled since the 1970’s. Now, roughly 158 million tons of seafood is harvested every year. Improvements in fisheries related technology have allowed us to remove organisms from the ocean more quickly and with less effort, putting increased pressure on the oceans. With an estimated 90% of all large, predatory fish already gone from our world’s oceans since industrialized fishing began; we are now fishing the last 10% of species such as tunas, swordfish, and sharks. Quite simply our marine species cannot reproduce fast enough to keep up with the hunt.
Bycatch Not all marine life that is captured by fishing gear makes it to the dinner table. An estimated 40% of what is caught in commercial fisheries is unintended catch (bycatch) and discarded. Bycatch can include unmarketable species, undersized species, and endangered species. Unfortunately the majority of the animals tossed back overboard do not survive. It is important to understand how your seafood has been harvested as some fishing gear types, like pelagic or surface longlining and bottom trawling can increase the likelihood and amount of bycatch incurred.
Habitat Damage Certain fishing and farming practices can have negative impacts on critical marine or aquatic habitats. With the loss of crucial habitats such as spawning, nursery, breeding or sheltering areas, many species find it challenging to survive, let alone thrive. Communities such as coral reefs, kelp forests, mangroves and wetlands provide critical habitat for a wide array of organisms and damage to these key areas can have dramatic consequences for the environment.
How Different Harvest Methods can be Sustainable or Unsustainable
The different types of fishing and aquaculture techniques used to harvest seafood influence the environmental integrity of our marine ecosystems. This influence can be sustainable or unsustainable. The issues of bycatch and habitat damage and their extent are principally determined by the type of fishing or farming method used.